Jun 19, 2017, 11:45 AM
sight of smallholder farmers using smartphones to access bespoke information on
pesticides, or diagnose crop disease, would once have been unthinkable. But one
artificial intelligence (AI)-based app that allows farmers to do this has been
downloaded almost 10 million times, with users uploading 20,000 images daily.
Digital technology is transforming agriculture, along with every sector of development from health and education to urban planning and conservation. Now, so-called frontier technologies such as AI offer even greater potential.
But will AI live up to the hype? And what are the risks of its rapid rise in development settings?
In this Spotlight, we look at some of the ways in which AI is being used for social good and economic development in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and the challenges this technology presents.
In Latin America, scientists, researchers and entrepreneurs are using AI for a host of health applications – predicting dengue outbreaks, or psychiatric disorders, or diagnosing Alzheimer’s. “AI will change the whole of medicine,” says Santiago Miriuka, a researcher for Argentina’s National Scientific and Technical Research Council.
But researchers also underline the need for more coordination and investment in these technologies and say real-world applications are still lacking.
In Senegal, authorities are pioneering “smart cities” as a means of tackling burgeoning urbanisation, with AI used to control transport, waste management and even care services. But poor connectivity is a huge obstacle to the emergence of these intelligent cities across the continent, according to AI researcher Seydina Moussa Ndiaye.
While smartphones may seem ubiquitous, mobile and data networks are still inadequate in many low-income countries, meaning many AI applications are a non-starter. This is a major challenge for organisations like India-based non-profit Wadhwani AI, which develops AI programmes for farming and healthcare, to tackle cotton pests, TB and low birthweights.
A joint report on AI in public service delivery by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and Google published this month makes the same point. It highlights the importance of public private partnerships to bring industry knowledge and expertise to government initiatives. Governments must develop frameworks to regulate these partnerships and increase public access to information on AI projects, it says. And these projects must be customised to their cultural, linguistic and organisational settings.
AI technology allows for vast amounts of data collection, for example. But what is done with this data and how can ordinary people be protected from its misuse?
Regulation is a word that comes up time and again when talking to experts about AI in development. It is an issue which is being grappled with worldwide, but low-income countries are particularly vulnerable to the lack of regulation in this fast-moving field.
A Guest Editorial