ghusl, beautifying one’s self, using the miswak, and using perfume for any
gathering and especially for Salatul Jumu’ah
It is preferred for anyone - man or woman, an elderly or young person, a traveler or a resident - who desires to attend the salatul Jumu’ah or any gathering of the people, to cleanse and to wear best attire. One should perform ghusl, put on one’s finest clothing, apply perfume, and to brush one’s teeth. The following hadith are recorded on this matter:
Abu Sa’id reports that the Prophet said: “Every Muslim should have a ghusl on Friday and wear his best clothing, and if he has perfume, he should use it.” This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
Ibn Salam reports that he heard the Prophet say, while he was upon the pulpit on Friday: “It would do no [harm] to anyone if he were to buy two gowns for Friday other than his work clothes.” This is related by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah.
Salman al-Farsi reports that the Prophet (sallallahu alehi wasallam) said: “A man who performs ghusl on Friday, purifies [himself] what he can and uses dye [for his hair] or perfumes himself in his house, goes to the mosque, and does not cause separation between two people [who are already seated], prays what Allah has prescribed for him, and then listens quietly while the imam speaks, all his sins between that Friday and the next Friday will be forgiven.” This is related by Ahmad and al-Bukhari, while Abu Hurairah used to say: “And for three more days as for every good deed Allah grants tenfold reward.” The sins mentioned in this hadith are the minor sins as Ibn Majah recorded, on the authority of Abu Hurairah in the words: “For one who has not committed major sins.”
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that the Prophet said: “It is obligatory upon every Muslim to perform ghusl, apply perfume and use the miswak on Jumu’ah.
Abu Hurairah reports that one Friday the Prophet said: “O gathering of Muslims, Allah has made this day an ‘id for you, so make ghusl and use the miswak.” This is related by at-Tabarani in al-Ausat and al-Kabir with a chain whose narrators are trustworthy.
Going early to Salatul Jumu’ah
It is preferred for one to go early to the salatul Jumu’ah, unless he is the imam. ‘Alqamah says: “I went with ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud to the mosque and we found that three people had arrived there before us. [Ibn Mas’ud] said: ‘The fourth of four, and the fourth of four is not far from Allah, for I have heard the Messenger of Allah say: “The people will be seated on the day of resurrection according to how they came to the salatul Jumu’ah: the first, then the second, then the third, then the fourth and the fourth of four is not far from Allah.”’ This is related by Ibn Majah and al-Munzhiri.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: “Whoever makes ghusl on Jumu’ah like the ghusl one makes due to sexual defilement, and then goes to the mosque, it will be as if he had sacrificed a camel. If he goes during the second hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a cow. If he goes during the third hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a horned lamb. If he goes during the fourth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed a hen. And if he goes during the fifth hour, it will be as if he had sacrificed (something like) an egg. When the imam comes, the angels will be present to listen to the remembrance.” This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Ash-Shaf’i and a number of scholars are of the opinion that the “hours” refer to the hours of the day; therefore, it is preferred for the people to start attending the mosque right after dawn. Malik is of the opinion that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian and afterward. Some hold that it refers to portions of the hour before the sun passes its meridian. Ibn Rushd says: “That is the most apparent meaning as going [to the mosque] after the sun passes the meridian is obligatory.”
Stepping over others’ necks in the mosque
At-Tirmizhi reports that the people of knowledge dislike that one should “step over the necks of the people” on Jumu’ah and they were very strict in this regard. ‘Abdullah ibn Busr says: “A man came and he was stepping over the necks of the people while the Prophet was delivering khutbah of Jumu’ah. He said to him: ‘Sit down. You have harmed the people and have come late.”’ This is related by Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’i, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah, and others call it sahih.
This ruling does not apply to the imam or one who finds an opening and cannot reach it, save by going over the people. If one wants to return to his place after leaving it due to some necessity, he may do so on the condition that he does not harm the people. ‘Uqbah ibn al-Harith relates: “I prayed the ‘Asr in Medinah behind the Prophet and then he stood and hurried off, stepping over the people, to go to some of the apartments of his wives. The people were afraid because of his rushing away in this manner. When he came out and found them amazed at leaving them in such a hurry, he said: ‘I remembered some gold that was in my possession and I hated that it should remain with me, so I ordered it to be distributed.”’ This is related by al-Bukhari and an-Nasa’i.
And when he returned he would make a similar supplication, but instead of saying: “from seeing harm having come to our property and family,” he would mention family first and then property. This is related by Ahmad and Muslim.
Nawafl before salatul Jumu’ah
It is a Sunnah to offer supererogatory prayers before al-Jumu’ah until the imam arrives. After the imam’s arrival, one should no longer offer any salah, save for the prayer of greeting the mosque (Tahayyatul Masjid) which may be performed quickly during the khutbah unless one comes at the end of the khutbah and would not have the time [i.e., before the actual salah begins] to perform Tahayyatul Masjid.
Ibn ‘Umar used to perform a long prayer before al-Jumu’ah and then two rak’at after it, and he said that the Prophet used to do so. This is related by Abu Dawud.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever makes ghusl on the day of Jumu’ah and then goes to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed for him, and remains quiet while the imam delivers the khutbah, and then prays with the imam, he will have forgiven for him what is between that Jumu’ah and the next and an additional three days.” This is related by Muslim.
Jabir reports that a man came to the mosque on Jumu’ah while the Prophet was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet inquired of him: “Did you offer the salah?” The man replied: “No!” He told him: “Pray two rak’at.” This is related by the group. In one narration it states: “If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah and the imam is delivering the khutbah, he should pray two rak’at and make them quick.” This is related by Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud. In another narration, it is stated: “If one of you comes to the mosque on the day of Jumu’ah and the imam has already arrived, he should offer two rak’at.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Feeling drowsy while in the mosque
It is preferred for one who is in the mosque to change place if he feels sleepy. The movement may remove some of his drowsiness and help wake him up. This rule is true for Fridays and any other day.
Ibn ‘Umar reports that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alehi Wasallam) said: “If one of you becomes sleepy while he is in the mosque, he should move from his place to another place.” This is related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and at-Tirmizhi who calls it Hasan Sahih.
To be continued