before and after al-Jumu’ah
It is a Sunnah to pray four rak’at or two rak’at after al-Jumu’ah: Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet Sallallahu Alehi Wasallam said: “Whoever is to pray after the Jumu’ah should pray four rak’at.” This is related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmizhi.
Ya’la ibn Umayyah reports that he heard the Prophet recite, while on the pulpit: “And they cry: O Malik!...” (az-Zukhruf 77). This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Ibn ‘Umar says: “The Prophet would pray two rak’at in his house on the day of Jumu’ah.” This is related by the group.
Ibn al-Qayyim says: “After the Prophet finished the Jumu’ah, he would enter his house and pray two rak’at, and he ordered those who prayed the Jumu’ah to pray four rak’at after it.
Our sheikh Ibn Taimiyyah says: ‘When he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four [rak’at], and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak’at.’ I say: this is what the hadith is pointing to. Abu Dawud records from ibn ‘Umar that when he prayed in the mosque, he would pray four rak’at, and when he prayed in his house, he would pray two rak’at. Also, in the two Sahihs it is reported from ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet would pray two rak’at in his house after the Friday Salah.”
If one prays four rak’at, then, according to some, he is to pray them all connected, while others hold that he is to pray two rak’at, make the taslim, followed by another two rak’at. It is preferred to pray them in one’s house. If one prays them in the mosque, he should change his place of prayer after the Friday salah.
Concerning any Sunnah prayer before the Friday salah, Ibn Taimiyyah writes: “The Prophet (SAW) never offered any salah after the Azhan and before the Friday salah, and no one has ever related such an act from him. During the Prophet’s time, there was only one azhan and that was made when the Prophet sat upon the pulpit. Bilal would make the azhan and then the Prophet would give the two khutbahs. Next, Bilal would make the Iqamah and the Prophet would lead the people in salah. It is not possible that the Prophet would have made a salah after the azhan nor anyone else among the Muslims who prayed with the Prophet could have done so. And we have no evidence to show that the Prophet, (SAW), prayed in his house before going out to the mosque on Friday. He did not specify any time for any salah before the Friday salah. What he said was meant to exhort those going early to the mosque on Friday to engage themselves in prayer. He said: ‘Whoever goes out early and walks and does not ride to the mosque and prays what has been prescribed [by Allah] for him...’ That has been related from the Prophet’s companions. When they would reach the mosque on Friday, they would pray whatever amount was easy for them. Some of them prayed ten rak’at and some prayed twelve and some only eight and others less than that. For this reason most of the scholars are of the opinion that there is no sunnah prayer with a specified number of rak’ah or time, before al-jumu’ah, for there is nothing either in the actions or statements of the Prophet to support or confirm it.
Salatul Jumu’ah and Salatul ‘Id occurring on the same day
If the day of ‘Id occurs on Jumu’ah, then salatul Jumu’ah is no longer an obligation upon those who performed the salatul ‘Id.
Zaid ibn Arqam says: “The Prophet Sallallahu Alehi Wasallam prayed the salatul ‘id and then he gave an exemption concerning the Jumu’ah, saying: ‘Whoever wishes to pray it may pray it.’” This is related by the five and al-Hakim. Ibn Khuzaimah calls it Sahih.
Abu Hurairah reports that the prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: “Two festivals have occurred together on this day of yours. For whosoever desires, this will suffice for his salatul Jumu’ah, but we are going to perform salatul Jumu’ah.” This is related by Abu Dawud.
It is preferred for the imam to perform the Jumu’ah so anyone who wishes to perform it may do so as well as those who were not able to attend the ‘id prayer. The Prophet (SAW) said: “We are going to perform the salatul Jumu’ah.”
According to the Hanbali school, the zuhr is obligatory upon anyone who does not attend the salatul Jumu’ah because he has performed the ‘id prayer. Nevertheless, it apparently is not obligatory as there is a hadith in Sunan Abu Dawud in which Ibn az-Zubair says: “’Id and Jumu’ah occurred on the same day so he joined them and prayed two rak’at at an early time, and did not add anything to it until ‘Asr.
Id prayers (Salatul ‘Idain)
The prayers of the two ‘ids was prescribed in the first year after the migration. It is a sunnah Mu’kkadah as the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam always performed these prayers and he ordered the men and women to go out to attend them.
To be continued