Friday, July 20, 2018

2. The supplication for rain can also be made on the occasion of Salatul Jumu’ah. In this case, the imam makes supplications during khutbatul jumu’ah with the people of the congregation saying (Ameen).

Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from Shuraik on the authority of Anas that a man entered the mosque on Friday while the Prophet was addressing the people. The man said: “O Messenger of Allah, our wealth has been destroyed and we have no transport to the market place. Supplicate for us for rain.” The Prophet raised his hands and said: “O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us rain. O Allah, give us rain.” Anas said: “By Allah, at that time there were no clouds in the sky and there was no house or building between us and the mountain. From behind the mountain came a cloud looking like a shield. By the time it reached the middle of the sky, it burst and started to rain. By Allah, we did not see the sun for one week. Then, on the next Friday, a man entered the mosque from that (same) door while the Prophet was making the address. The man faced the Prophet and said: ‘Our livestock is dead and the paths are impassable. Ask Allah to make it stop.’ The Prophet raised his hands and said: ‘O Allah, around us and not upon us. O Allah, make it upon the hills, small mountains, bottom of the valleys, and plantations.’ The rain stopped and we walked out in the sunshine.”

3. One may also make a supplication (for rain) without it being Friday and regardless of whether or not the prayer takes place inside or outside the mosque. Ibn Majah and Abu ‘Awanah record that Ibn ‘Abbas said: “A Bedouin came to the Messenger of Allah and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I come to you from a people whose shepherds do not have any fodder and whose prize stallion cannot move its tail due to the [drought].’ The Prophet mounted the pulpit, praised Allah and said: ‘O Allah, give us saving rain which leads to something good and which is productive - a general heavy rain - now and not later.’ Then, he descended from the pulpit. People came from every direction saying that it was raining.” This is reported by Ibn Majah and Abu ‘Awanah and its chain is sound, but Ibn Hajar is silent about it in his Al-Talkhis.

Shurahbil ibn as-Simt said to Ka’b ibn Murrah: “O Ka’b, relate to us something from the Messenger of Allah.” Ka’b said: “When a man came and said to the Prophet of Allah, ‘Seek rain for the tribe of Muzhar,’ I heard the Prophet say: ‘You are a bold man. You want me to seek rain for the tribe of Muzhar?’ The man said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you have sought victory from Allah and He gave you victory. You supplicated Allah and He answered you.’ The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said: ‘O Allah, give us a saving rain, good and productive, general and heavy, now and not later, beneficial and not harmful.’ Allah responded to his supplication. It was not long before the people came complaining about the profusion of rain, and damage to their dwellings. The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said: ‘O Allah, around us and not upon us.’ The clouds began dispersing left and right.” This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqi, Ibn Shaibah and al-Hakim. The later grades this hadith as Hasan Sahih and holds that its chain meets the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Ash-Sha’biy says: “’Umar went out to make Ishsqa’ and he did no more than seeking Allah’s forgiveness. The people said: ‘We did not see you making Ishsqa’.’ He said: ‘I sought rain by what makes it descend (i.e., Istighfar or seeking forgiveness of Allah), unlike those (Arabs of days of ignorance) who sought it by the stars of the sky.’ Then, he recited the following two ‘Ayat: ‘Seek forgiveness of your Lord. Lo! He is Ever-Forgiving. He will let loose the sky for you in plenteous rain. ‘and: ‘Ask forgiveness of your Lord, and turn to Him (in repentance): He will send you the skies pouring abundant rain.’” This is related by Abu Sa’id in his Sunan, ‘Abdurrazzaq, al-Baihaqi, and Ibn Abi Shaibah.

Some supplications for rain 

The following are some of the supplications that have been transmitted.

Ash-Shaf’i states that it has been related from Salim ibn ‘Abdullah, on the authority of his father that the Prophet would say for Ishsqa’: “O Allah, give us a saving rain, productive, plentiful, general, and continuous. O Allah, give us rain and do not make us among the despondent. O Allah, (Your) slaves, land, animals, and (Your) creation all are suffering and seek protection. And we do not complain except to You. O Allah, let our crops grow, and let the udders be refilled. Give us from the blessings of the sky and grow for us from the blessings of the earth. O Allah, remove from us the hardship, starvation, and barrenness and remove the affliction from us as no one removes afflictions save Thee. O Allah, we seek Your forgiveness as You are the Forgiving, and send upon us plenteous rains.” Ash-Shaf’i said: “I prefer that the imam would supplicate with that (prayer).”

Sa’d reported that for Ishsqa’, the Prophet would supplicate: “O Allah, let us be covered with thick clouds that have abundant and beneficial rain, frequently making a light rain upon us and sprinkling upon us with lightning. O Allah, You are full of majesty, bounty and Honour.” This is related by Abu ‘Awanah in his Sahih.

‘Amr ibn Shuaib relates from his father, on the authority of his grandfather, that for Istisqa’, the Prophet would say: “O Allah, provide water for Your slaves and Your cattle, display Your mercy and give life to Your dead lands.” This is related by Abu Dawud.

It is preferred for the one who is making this supplication to raise his hands with the back of his hands toward the sky. Muslim records from Anas that the Prophet would point with the back of his hands during Ishsqa’.

It is also preferred, upon seeing the rain, to say: “O Allah, make it a beneficial rain” and he should uncover part of his body to the rain. On the other hand, if one fears that there is too much rain, one should say: “O Allah give us mercy and do not give us punishment, calamities, destruction or flooding. O Allah, make it upon the woods, farms and trees. Make it around us and not upon us.” All of this is authentic and confirmed from the Prophet (sallallahu alehi wasallam).

The Prostration During the Qur’anic Recitation 

Whoever recites an “’Ayyah of prostration (Sajdah)” or hears an “’ayyah of prostration” should preferably pronounce the takbir and prostrate and then make the takbir again and rise from the prostration. This is called “the prostration of recital.” There is no tashahud or taslim with the Sajdah. Naf’i relates that Ibn ‘Umar said: “The Prophet would recite the Qur’an to us and when he came to an ‘’ayyah of sajdah,’ he would make the takbir and go into sajdah and we would make the sajdah.” This is related by Abu Dawud, al-Baihaqi, and al-Hakim. The later holds it to be Sahih according to al-Bukhari’s and Muslim’s criteria. Abu Dawud says: “Abdurrazzaq said: ‘At-Thauri was amazed by that hadith.’ He was amazed by it because it mentions the takbir.” ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said: “If you read an ‘ayyah of sajdah’, then make the takbir and prostrate. And when you raise your head, make the takbir.”

Excellence of prostration during the Quranic recitation 

Abu Hurairah narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alehi Wasallam) said: “If a son of Adam recites an ‘ayyah of prostration and prostrates, the Satan departs from him and cries: ‘O woe, he was ordered to prostrate and he did, so for him is paradise. I was ordered to prostrate and I disobeyed, so for me is the Hell.’”

Ruling concerning prostration during the Quranic recitation 

The majority of the scholars say that prostrations for the “’Ayyat of sajdah” are Sunnah for the one who recites the ‘ayyah and for the one who hears it. This is based on what al-Bukhari recorded from ‘Umar who recited an-Nahl upon the Minbar one Friday, until he came to the “’ayyah of sajdah,” and he descended from the pulpit and prostrated along with the people. On the next Friday, he recited the same and when he came to the ‘ayyah of sajdah, he said: “O people, we have not been ordered to prostrate. Whoever does so has acted correctly, while, there is no sin upon one who does not do so.” In another narration it is stated: “Allah has not forced upon us the sajdah but if one wishes to do so (he may make a prostration.)” In addition, the group, except for Ibn Majah, records that Zaid ibn Thabit said: “I recited an-Najm to the Prophet (sallallahu alehi wasallam) and he did not prostrate during it.” Ad-Daraqutni records it and observes: “None of us prostrated during it.”

Ibn Hajar al-Asqallani says that the strongest opinion is that he left it to show that it is permissible not to do it. Shaf’i holds a similar view. This opinion is supported by what is recorded by al-Bazzar and ad-Daraqutni from Abu Hurairah who says: “The Prophet (sallallahu alehi wasallam) recited an-Najm and prostrated and we prostrated with him.” (In Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar holds that its narrators are trustworthy.) Ibn Mas’ud moreover reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alehi wasallam) recited an-Najm and prostrated, and all of the people with him prostrated, save one old man from the Quraish who simply lifted some pebbles or dirt to his forehead and said: “That is sufficient for me.” Ibn Mas’ud said: “After [some time] I found that he was killed while still an unbeliever.” This is recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

To be continued