The Republic of
Gambia is one of the smallest countries in West Africa surrounded by the
republic of Senegal on the northern, eastern and southern sides, and bounded on
the Atlantic Ocean. It has a total land area of about 11,000 square
kilometres/extending approximately 400 km eastwards with widths varying from
about 80 kilometres at the Atlantic cost to about 24 to 28 km in the east. The
country has a human development index ranking of 160 out of 179 nations. The
agricultural production is the main economy activity in the Gambia but has
declined throughout the 1990’s as a result of several factors including poor
rainfall distribution, weak marketing infrastructure, lack of access to credit
(especially for the youths and women) and a limited resource base.
Generally Gambian agriculture has been characterised by subsistence production of food crops, comprising cereals (early millet, late millet, maize, sorghum, rice), semi intensive cash crop production (groundnut, cotton, sesame and horticulture). Farmers generally practice mixed farming, although crops accounts for a greater portion of the production. The agricultural sector is characterized by little diversification, mainly subsistence rain-fed agriculture with a food self-sufficiency ration of about 50%. The crops sub-sector generates approximately 40% of the foreign exchange earnings and provides about 75% of total household income. The crop-sub-sector employs 70 percent of the labour force, and accounts for 33% of GDP of the country.
Livestock production in the Gambia is still predominantly traditional i.e. low input extensive system of husbandry. Current livestock population is estimated at around 300,000 cattle; 140-150,000 sheep and 200,000-230,000 goats. The poultry population in 2007 comprised 300,000 broilers, 18,500 commercial layers and 550.000 local chickens (DLS).
Despite the primary role of the agriculture sector in the economy, its performance and share in most key socio-economic indicators in the past decade have not been consistent, and in some years, performance in production stagnated or even declined. This has been attributed to a combination of factors including the following; adverse climatic conditions from 1968 to the first half of 90s through to the early years of the present millennium (2000); application of Structural Adjustment Programmes without sequencing in the mid to late 1980s, low private investment, especially in value added, declining international agricultural commodity prices; soaring prices of food commodities and essential production inputs; inadequate domestic policies, institutional support and investment in the sector, particularly roads and equipment.
The Gambia’s salt and fresh waters have abundant and diverse resources. It has a total continental shelf area of 3855 sq. km on the Atlantic Ocean in one of the richest fishing zones of the world. Species present include pelagic and demersal fish, as well as crustaceans and shellfish. With a theoretical annual MSY of 65,000 - 75,000 MT and estimated annual exploitation of around 45,000 MT, the fisheries resources are believed to be under-exploited.
A Guest Editorial