majority of the scholars are of the opinion that it is obligatory to be silent
during the khutbah, and one is not to indulge in conversation during the
khutbah, not even if it is to order one to do some good or to stop some evil,
and this rule applies whether or not the person sitting in the mosque can
actually hear the khutbah.
Ibn ‘Abbas reports that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever speaks in Jumu’ah while the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey who is carrying books, and for those who tell him to be quiet, there is no [reward] for the Jumu’ah.” This is related by Ahmad, ibn abi-Shaibah, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani. Ibn Hajar said in Bulugh al-Maram: “There is no fault in its chain.”
‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr reports that the Messenger of Allah said: “There are three types of people who attend the Jumu’ah: one, a man who is present but speaks [during the speech], and that is his portion of the prayer; two, a man who is present and makes supplications - in his case, Allah may give him what he asks, if He wishes, or He may not give him what he asks, three, a person who is present and observes silence and does not step over the necks of the Muslims nor harm anyone - for him, there is expiation from that Jumu’ah until the next Jumu’ah plus an additional three days as Allah has said: ‘He that does good shall have ten times as much to his credit.’” This is related by Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a good chain.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet said: “If, during the Jumu’ah while the imam is delivering khutbah, you tell your companion to be quiet, then you have spoken needlessly.” This is related by the group, save Ibn Majah.
Abu ad-Darda’ says: “The Prophet was upon the pulpit and was addressing the people and he recited a verse, and next to me was Ubayy ibn-Ka’b and I asked him: When was that verse revealed?’ He refused to talk to me until the Messenger of Allah came down from the pulpit and then he said to me: ‘You have nothing from your Jumu’ah, except your useless talk.’ When the Prophet had finished, I went to him and informed him of what had happened, and he said: ‘Ubayy has told the truth. If you hear your imam speaking, be quiet until he is finished.’’’ This is related by Ahmad and at-Tabarani.
Ahmad and ash-Shaf’i are reported to have made a distinction, concerning this ruling, between one who can hear the speech and the one who cannot hear the speech, saying that speaking is forbidden for the former and not for the latter, although it is preferred for the latter also to be silent.
At-Tirmizhi records that Ahmad and Ishaq made an exception for replying to a salutation and responding to a sneeze while the imam is delivering the Friday khutbah. According to ash-Shaf’i: “If a person sneezes [during the khutbah] and someone says: ‘May Allah bless you,’ I wish I could have accommodated it since such a reply is a Sunnah. In my view it is Makruh that a person should greet someone with Salam [while they are listening to the khutbah]. [What makes it worse is] that his salam is not returned, even though saying salam is a sunnah while responding to it is a Fard.
Indulging in conversation when the khutbah is not being delivered, is permissible
Tha’labah ibn abi-Malik says: “We would be talking on Jumu’ah while ‘Umar was sitting on the pulpit and when the call to salah was finished ‘Umar would stand and no one would utter a word until he had completely finished both of his khutbahs. When the iqamah was made and ‘Umar came down from the pulpit, the people would then speak.” This is related by ash-Shaf’i in his Musnad.
Ahmad records, with a sahih chain, that while the azhan was being made, ‘Uthman ibn-’Affan would be sitting on the pulpit, apprising the people of their situation and the prices of some commodities.
Catching One Rak’ah or Less of the Jumu’ah
Most of the people of knowledge are of the opinion that if a person catches only one rak’ah of al-Jumu’ah, then that rak’ah will be valid and the person need only make up the one rak’ah that he misses.
Ibn ‘Umar reports that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever catches only one rak’ah of the Salah and then adds to it the other one, his prayer will be complete.” This is related by an-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, and ad-Daraqutni. In Bulugh al-Maram, Ibn Hajar says that its chain is sahih although Abu Hatim says that the strongest opinion is that it is Mursal.
Abu Hurairah reports that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever catches one rak’ah of the prayer has indeed caught the whole prayer.” This is related by the group.
Whoever catches less than one rak’ah of the Salah has not caught the Jumu’ah and he is to pray four rak’at of the zuhr Salah according to the majority of the scholars.
Ibn Mas’ud says: “Whoever catches one rak’ah from al-Jumu’ah is only to add another one to it. Whoever misses both rak’at is to pray four rak’at.” This is related by at-Tabarani with a good chain.
Ibn ‘Umar says: “If one catches from the Friday salah one rak’ah, then he is to add another one to it. If he catches only the sitting [at the end of the prayer, following the bowing], then he is to pray four [rak’at].” This is related by al-Baihaqi. Such is the opinion of the Shaf’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools, and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan. Abu Hanifah and Abu Yusuf say that if one catches the tashahud with the imam, then he has caught al-Jumu’ah. He should pray two rak’at after the Imam makes the taslim, and his Friday salah would be complete.
Offering the salah in a crowded area
Ahmad and al-Baihaqi relate from Sayyar that ‘Umar was giving an address and said: “The Messenger of Allah built this mosque and we were with him [i.e., the emigrants and the helpers], and if it becomes very crowded, a person among you is to make the prostration on the back of his brother.” When, he saw some people praying in the street, he said to them: “Pray in the mosque.”