Combining a Number of Sujjud

Friday, August 31, 2018

One may combine a number of sujjud and make only one sajdah if one recites an “’ayyah of sajdah” over and over, or one hears it being recited over and over, provided one delays the sajdah until all the recitals are finished. Some say that if one prostrates after the first recital, it will be sufficient. Others hold that one should prostrate again since the cause for the prostration is reintroduced.

Performing Ssajdah after Recital 

The majority of the scholars are of the opinion that the sajdah is to be performed right after the recital or hearing of the ‘ayyah. Delaying such a sajdah does not rescind it. If an extended period of time lapses between recitation of an ‘ayah and the actual sajdah, one need not do it, for it does not have to be made up for.

The Prostration of Thankfulness (Sajdat ush-Shukr) 

The majority of the scholars say that it is preferred to make prostrations of thankfulness (shukr) when one receives a bounty or is rescued from some trial. Abu Bakr reports that, when the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam received something which pleased him or some glad tidings, he would make the sajdah in thanks to Allah. This is related by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi who says it is hasan. And al-Baihaqi records, with a chain that meets al-Bukhari’s conditions, that when ‘Ali wrote to the Messenger of Allah, informing him that Hamazhan had embraced Islam, the Prophet prostrated, and when he raised his head, he said: “Peace be upon Hamazhan, peace be upon Hamazhan.”

‘Abdurrahman ibn ‘Auf relates that the Messenger of Allah went out once and he followed him until he entered a grove of palm trees and prostrated. His prostration was so long that ‘Abdurrahman feared that Allah had taken his soul. ‘Abdurrahman came to look at him and he raised his head and said: “What is wrong, Abdurrahman’?” Abdurrahman mentioned what had happened, and he said: “Gabriel alehi as-salam came to me and said: ‘Shall I not give you glad tidings’? Allah says to you, whoever prays upon you, I pray upon him. Whoever salutes you, I salute him.’ Therefore, I prostrated to Allah in thanks.” This is related by Ahmad and by AlHakim who says: “It is Sahih according to the criterion of alBukhari and Muslim. And I do not know anything more authentic than that.” Al-Bukhari records that Ka’b ibn Malik made a sajdah when he received the news that Allah had accepted his repentance. Ahmad records that ‘Ali performed the sajdah when he heard the news that Zhul-Thudayyah of the Khawarij was killed. Also, as mentioned before, Sa’id ibn Mansur recorded that Abu Bakr made sajdah in thankfulness when Musailimah was killed.

The prostration of thankfulness is bound by the same requirements as the prostration in prayer, while some disagree as it is not a prayer. The author of Fath al-’Alam remarks: “This latter opinion is closer to being correct.” Ash-Shaukani said: “There is nothing in the hadith to prove that ablution and purity of the clothes and place are required for sajdat-ushshukr. And that is the opinion of Imam Yahya and Abu Talib. And these hadith are silent about any takbir being made with the prostration. In alBahr it is stated that there is a takbir. Imam Yahya says: ‘One is not to make the prostration of thankfulness during a prayer as it is not part of the prayer.’”

Prostrations of Forgetfulness During the Prayer 

It is confirmed that the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam sometimes forgot something in the salah. It is also true that he said: “I am a human being and forget like you forget. If I forget, remind me.” There are specific points concerning such prostrations and they are presented below.

How to Perform These Prostrations of Forgetfulness 

The “prostrations of forgetfulness” (sujjud us-sahu) are two prostrations which a person makes before the taslim. All of this has been confirmed from the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam. In the Sahih, it is recorded from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri that the Prophet said: “If one of you has some doubts during his salah and he does not recall (the number of rak’at) he has prayed, three or four, then he can put an end to his doubt by performing salah according to what he was certain of [the lesser amount] and then making two sujjud before the taslim.” In the story of Zhul-Yadain, in the two Sahih, we are told the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wassalam made the prostrations after the taslim.

Ash-Shaukani says: “The best that is stated on this subject is that one must follow what the Prophet said or did, respecting the sujjud before or after the taslim. If one does something that necessitates sujjud before the taslim, one should make them before the taslim, and if one does something requiring sujjud after the taslim, then one should make them after the taslim. As for those acts of forgetfulness that are not related to any specific time either before or after the taslim, one may choose to make the prostrations before or after the taslim in cases of addition or reduction in the salah. This is based on what Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ibn Mas’ud that the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam said: ‘If one adds or decreases something from his salah, he should make two sujjud.”’

When to Perform These Prostrations of Forgetfulness 

The “sujjud us-sahu” are to be performed in the following circumstances:

1. If a person makes the taslim before he actually completes the prayers. Ibn Sireen relates from Abu Hurairah who said: “The Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam prayed either zuhr or ‘asr salah with us and he prayed only two rak’at and made the taslim. He got up and leaned against a piece of wood in the mosque as if he was angry. He put his right hand on his left and interlocked his fingers. Then, he placed his cheek on the back of his left hand. And some people left the mosque in a hurry. And they said: ‘The prayer has been shortened?’ Among the people were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and they were shy to speak to him. One of the people, who was called Zhul-Yadain, said: ‘O Messenger of Allah have you forgotten or has the prayer been shortened?’ He answered: ‘I have not forgotten and it has not been shortened.’ Then he asked: ‘Is it as Zhul-Yadain has said?’ The people answered in the affirmative...At that, he led the people in what he had ommitted and made the taslim. After which he made the takbir and prostrated the way he usually prostrated or perhaps even longer. Next, he raised his head and made the takbir. Then, he made the takbir [again] and prostrated, like one of his customary sujjud or perhaps even longer, and finally, he raised his head.” This is related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

‘Ata’ relates that Ibn az-Zubair prayed maghrib and made the taslim after two rak’at and then he stood

up and wanted to kiss the black stone, when the people tried to correct him he said: “What is the matter with you?” Then he prayed what he had left out and performed two sujjud. When this was mentioned to Ibn ‘Abbas, he said that it was not far from the Sunnah of the Prophet Sallallahu alehi wasallam. This is related by Ahmad, al-Bazzar, and at-Tabarani.

2 In the case of an addition to the prayer. Ibn Mas’ud narrates that the Prophet prayed five rak’at and the people asked him: “Has there been an addition to the prayer?” He asked: “Why do you say that?” They replied: “You prayed five rak’at” Then he made two sujJud after he had made the taslim. This is related by the group. This hadith proves that the prayer of one who prays five rak’at out of forgetfulness, without sitting during the fourth rak’ah, is acceptable.

3 In the case of forgetting the first tashahud or one of the other Sunnah acts of the prayer. Ibn Buhainah narrates that the Prophet stood after two rak’at. The people tried to correct him but he continued. When he finished his salah, he made two sujjud and made the taslim. This is related by the group.’ This hadith shows that one who forgets the first sitting but is reminded of it and he recalls it before he completely stands should return and sit, but if he is already completely standing, he should not sit down. This is supported by what Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah recorded from al-Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, that the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam said: “If one of you stands after two rak’at and he has not completely stood, then he should sit. If he is already completely standing, he should not sit and he should make two sujjud of forgetfulness.”

4 In the case of doubt over whether or not one performed some act of the prayer. ‘Abdurrahman ibn ‘Auf reported that he heard the Prophet say: “If one of you has some doubt during his salah and he does not know if he prayed one rak’ah or two, he should take it to have been just one. If he does not know if he prayed two rak’at or three, he should take it to have been just two. If he does not know if he prayed three rak’at or four, he should take it to have been just three. [In all such cases] at the end of his prayer, while sitting, he should make two sujjud before the taslim.” This is related by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and at-Tirmizhi. The latter grades it Sahih. 

 

To be Continued